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Jack Holley: Slocum Massacre of 1910

 

 

 

 

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Jack Holley, born a slave, owned a store and land in Slocum before the 1910 massacre. His great-great-granddaughter, Constance Hollie-Jawaid, is seeking a state historical marker for the massacre, in what she hopes will be a step toward recovering the family land.

Slocum is an East Texas crossroads in Anderson County about a dozen miles southeast of Palestine. It is home to a couple of hundred people, about what it’s always been. According to the Handbook of Texas, published by the Texas State Historical Association, Slocum’s defining struggle to get its own post office back in the 19th century was a “slow come,” and it’s now long gone. In 1929, Slocum was flattened by a tornado that killed eight people, injured as many as 150 others and left a mule stuck high in a tree.

There is no mention anywhere in the handbook of the 1910 Slocum Massacre, in which a marauding mob of local whites went on a rampage, killing Blacks pell-mell, and sending much of the local African-American population fleeing for their lives, abandoning homes and property, never to return.

“Men were going about killing Negroes as fast as they could find them. And, so far as I was able to ascertain, without any real cause. There was just a hot-headed gang hunting them down and killing them,” Anderson County Sheriff William H. Black told The New York Times the day after the July slaughter. “I don’t know how many there were in the mob, but I think there must have been 200 or 300. Some of them cut the telephone wires. They hunted the Negroes down like sheep.”

Even in an era when raw racial violence was common, what came to be called the Slocum Massacre was noteworthy, both for its scope and for the aggressive if ultimately futile efforts by white officials to bring the perpetrators to justice. But it quickly slipped from national headlines and, in the century that followed, largely disappeared from historical memory.

That could change come January when the Texas Historical Commission will decide whether to approve an application for a historical marker in Slocum submitted by Constance Hollie-Jawaid, a Dallas educator and descendant of the most prominent black family victimized in 1910, and E.R. Bills, a freelance writer from Aledo and the author of a recent book, “The 1910 Slocum Massacre: An Act of Genocide in East Texas.”

The application has its detractors, notably the Anderson County Historical Commission, which judged it overwrought and underproven, and worried that it would forever brand little Slocum for the long-ago sins of some of its forefathers.

In their dueling pleadings to the state, the applicants seeking the marker and their critics provide a compelling case study of just how fraught and personal memorializing terrible episodes from America’s racist past can be, even more than a century after the fact.

“This gets at the heart of what’s going on in America and particularly in the South in coming to terms with the history of racial violence and trauma,” said Derek Alderman, a cultural and historical geographer at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who writes about the public commemoration of America’s racial past. “How do you recognize that publicly in a way that’s fair to the victims and fair to the community?”

“I do feel like (Hollie-Jawaid) had great intentions of having this recognized as to what happened, but you can’t take all these newspaper accounts and give an accurate description of what happened,” said Jimmy Odom, who chairs the county Historical Commission.

Despite his misgivings, Odom passed the application on to Bob Brinkman, director of the Historical Markers Program for the state Historical Commission in Austin, who, with his staff of one, must review and make a recommendation on this and 173 other marker applications, submitted by the Nov. 15 deadline, to the 12-member state Historical Commission meeting at the end of January in Austin.

Odom didn’t check the box indicating approval by the local historical commission, and he included with the submission his commission’s critical commentary: “The Massacre of 1910 was an atrocity committed by a group of ignorant white men. Those men should have paid for their crimes. This event should never be forgotten in the history of Anderson County. However, it is the general view of the Historical Commission that historical markers should represent people, places and events that had a positive influence on our community. This event absolutely did not have a positive influence on anyone and it is a scar to the community of Slocum.”

History is history,” said Hollie-Jawaid. “It’s the lens that you look at it that determines whether it is positive or negative.”

Her application concludes: “Descendants of the perpetrators of the massacre may not want to remember the crime, but the descendants of the victims can’t forget and shouldn’t be encouraged to forget. A local, commemorative historical marker acknowledges the truth of the matter for all time. The lack thereof encourages a lie (of omission) and a long-running regimen of selective amnesia that persist to the present day.”

That premise, wrote Odom, is “offensive to the citizens of Anderson County” and “almost like blackmail by shame.”

“The citizens of Slocum had absolutely nothing to do with what happened over a hundred years ago. This is a nice quiet community with a wonderful school system. It would be a shame to mark them as a racist community from now until the end of time,” Odom wrote. “Slocum has not buried their head in the sand and forgotten — they have moved forward and progressed.”

‘I feel like we’re all past it’

Theories abound about what triggered the massacre — a dispute over a debt, advances by a black man toward a white woman, a white man’s indignation about being called to work on a road crew by a black man, white fears of an impending black uprising after a nearby lynching, whites coveting black-owned land.

Odom sent the application and supporting documents to Greg Chapin, the county commissioner whose precinct includes Slocum.

“I had stacks and stacks of newspapers. I read article after article after article. There was nothing consistent to it. I don’t know if there was two stories alike,” said Chapin, who runs a deer processing operation in nearby Elkhart.

“I don’t deny any justice to anyone,” Chapin said. “If they can get it and find it and prove it, that’s great.”

But, he added, “If I say, ‘OK, we’re going to recognize that this did happen, somebody of interest is going to take it further, and they are going to say, ‘The county even recognized it, and we want our land back.’ ”

“It’s a sad situation, but I feel like we’re all past it and other ones carry the burden on their shoulders,” Chapin said. “Their ancestors dealt with it years and years ago, but some of them don’t let it go.”

On Chapin’s recommendation, the Anderson County Commissioners Court, three whites and one black, unanimously agreed that “without further evidence … Anderson County cannot support the marker.”

Odom also included with the application a statement of opposition from David Franklin, a Dallas police officer and pastor at Elkhart Congregational Methodist Church, whose family has been in Slocum since the 1830s.

A history buff, Franklin stumbled upon newspaper accounts of the massacre more than two decades ago. He was intrigued.

“It was national news. In 1910 it was front page news in New York and Chicago,” Franklin said. But by the time he was born in 1957, “the story is lost, and that’s amazing. You knew something happened, but you just didn’t know what.”

Even after years of research and interviewing locals, Franklin said, what exactly happened is still too much of a muddle to make for a fair and factually coherent marker in Slocum.

“We can’t be completely objective about it because it’s our past. It’s not a pleasant thing that happened; you don’t like it; you wish it didn’t happen; you don’t want to ignore it,” Franklin said. “I wouldn’t be opposed to a marker on the courthouse square. But what would be on there?”

Joe Feagin, a sociologist of race at Texas A&M University, said the Southern landscape is scarred with suppressed and forgotten stories.

“There were hundreds of these massacres that were covered up and ignored, even by historians,” over and above what he estimates were about 6,000 lynchings, mostly in Southern and border states, since the Civil War. “Whites are not prepared to face our history of slavery and Jim Crow.”

‘This is just the beginning’

The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, in which perhaps the most prosperous black business district in the nation was burned to the ground, destroying 40 city blocks and leaving as many as 300 people dead and more than 8,000 people homeless, disappeared from public memory for generations.

The same decades of obscurity shrouded the fate of Rosewood, Fla., razed in 1923 by whites from a neighboring community. The state of Florida ultimately compensated some survivors, the site was designated a state landmark, and Rosewood became the subject of a feature film.

In both Tulsa and Rosewood, the precipitating factor was a dubious claim of a black man attacking a white woman.

In his book, Bills calculates that, based on the black oral history, hundreds of African-Americans were killed in Slocum.

“The truth is,” he writes, “a harrowing number of African-Americans were slaughtered in the counties of Anderson and Houston in the mid-summer of 1910, easily eclipsing the body count of the Rosewood Massacre in Florida and surely surpassing that of the Tulsa Riots in Oklahoma, probably establishing the Slocum Massacre as the single largest pogrom of blacks in modern American history.”

“I’m skeptical that hundreds of people even lived in that part of the county,” Franklin said.

“They say there was this big, huge prominent black community that was squashed by all this. There is no evidence of any of that,” said Franklin’s wife, Sheri, who also hails from a longtime Slocum family.

“Bills is doing like some picture people do – make it look good,” Odom said.

In 2011, after the Fort Worth Star-Telegram’s Tim Madigan wrote about the Slocum Massacre, the Texas House unanimously approved a resolution for the first time formally acknowledging the event — “the murder of eight people was confirmed, and reports indicate that many more may have died in what became known as the Slocum Massacre.”

When Madigan asked Hollie-Jawaid’s then 96-year-old grandfather about the lingering pain, Myrt Hollie replied, “It’s gone now. With this exercise, other people know about it. I can throw it away.”

But Hollie-Jawaid told Madigan, “This isn’t the end; this is just the beginning.”

On a recent Saturday, Hollie-Jawaid and her daughter, Imani Nia Ramirez, and Bills drove along the quiet state highway in Slocum where they would like the marker to go. She recalled her father bringing her there when she was 9 years old and recounting the family history.

“I remember having the windows down, and he had a blue Pontiac, and just looking — it’s beautiful — and then wondering what it had to be like, running and fleeing for your life,” she said.

“I, more than anything, want the land back, to come back to what was home,” Hollie-Jawaid said. She said the family patriarch, her great-great-grandfather Jack Holley (after the massacre, the family changed the spelling of its name to avoid reprisals), born a slave, had a dairy, a granary, a store frequented by both blacks and whites, and more than 700 acres of prime land. “We had our legacy stolen from us.”

“There’s innocent people who probably brought the land; they don’t deserve to lose it; they didn’t know it was somebody else’s land,” Bills said. “It’s changed hands too many times. There’s no way you’ll get the land back.”

Perhaps there could be some other form of reparations, Bills said, like a scholarship fund for descendants.

‘White people have gone crazy’

Amid the mayhem in 1910, the militia and Texas Rangers were dispatched to Slocum. Sheriff Black made plain that his sympathies were with the victims, and Palestine Judge Benjamin Howard Gardner immediately oversaw a grand jury that indicted seven white men. That the defendants should gain a change of venue and never come to trial was less surprising than that they were indicted in the first place.

“That’s different; that’s very unusual,” Feagin said.

No whites were ever prosecuted after Rosewood; in Tulsa, a grand jury laid blame for the riot on the black community.

One of the most vivid accounts of the massacre comes from the memoir of Jerry Sadler, a brawling East Texas politician who served as both railroad and land commissioner. Sadler opens the book with his very first memory, when he was not quite 3, of terrified black people seeking refuge in July 1910, “a date that is still known among the black population of Anderson County as ‘Bad Saturday.’ ”

“The image that stands out most clearly in my mind is of bare black feet scratched and cut, below trousers and skirts that were torn and soiled from their 14-mile flight across fields and through woods to seek papa’s help,” he wrote.

“There are all kinds of stories of why and how the trouble started,” Sadler wrote. “The truth is simply that the whites wanted the land that the blacks owned, and they had decided finally that there was only one way to get it. The blacks had some of the most desirable farmland in the county, and for that my great-grandpa W.T. Sadler can be blamed. When the Civil War freed his slaves, he gave them some of the best land he owned, and he did everything he could to help the other freed slaves of the area to obtain good land.”

Perhaps to cover their tracks, Sadler wrote that three years later, in 1913, “the Anderson County courthouse was burned by an arsonist, and the records were destroyed.”

Maxine Session, who lost ancestors in the massacre, publishes the Cherokee County Informer, which in 1996 ran a story that revived local interest in what had been a forbidden topic. She said that when she was 9 her father, who was an infant in 1910, told the story of that July day as it had been passed on to him: “People had come in from the fields and were resting in the noon hour, and somebody came through and said, ‘You’ve got to get out of here; white people have gone crazy; they’re killing everybody black that they can see, so you’ve got to go.’ So, he said, the adults grabbed what they could and got in wagons; some of them got in barrels down the Ioni Creek there; some ended up here in Cherokee County, some in Palestine, some in Hemphill; they just went where they could get away from Slocum.”

‘We just want our history’

On a recent Sunday, Franklin and his wife, Sheri, and their family were having lunch at Little Mexico, a popular Palestine restaurant, after church. Sunday school had focused on the verse from the Gospel of John in which Jesus said, “Let anyone among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.” Sheri sang a sweet rendition of “Amazing Grace.”

Franklin said his great-grandfather turned away the vigilantes when they came to the farm to enlist his oldest boys, just as Chapin, without local roots, said his wife’s grandparents hid a black family to keep them safe.

“The whites that were indicted, I don’t recognize any of those names,” Franklin said.

Asked about the mass graves in which the massacre’s victims were reportedly buried, Franklin said, with a nod to Sheri, “I heard stories of that. Your daddy told me that. He said he could tell me where they were. I never asked him to.”

Hollie-Jawaid wants the graves pinpointed and the bodies exhumed and given a proper burial. Bills wants a comprehensive state investigation to unearth the truth.

“I think what’s most irritating about seeing all of this in the public eye is because if you’re in Slocum, there’s no issue here and there never has been any racial animosity,” said Sheri Franklin. Not in her lifetime.

“There’s things we’ve all done we’re not proud of. I think this would qualify as something that happened in Slocum that I’m certainly not proud of, but that doesn’t make me or my family bad people, and we still live here,” said Sheri Franklin. “I don’t deny the fact that it happened. I don’t know the situation, but yeah, if it were my family and the roles were reversed, I would be upset too. But just bringing it all back up again is not going to change anything.”

Maxine Session thinks it would.

“It’s part of history, and maybe that’s why they hid it so well and African-Americans were really afraid to talk about it. They knew what happened, but they were afraid to talk about it,” Session said. “I don’t think we get to the point where any reparations of any kind would be forthcoming. I don’t know who would pay and why.”

“Nobody is angry about anything,” Session said. “We just want our history. This is confirming that this took place. That’s what a marker would do. It would be here when we’re all gone.”

By Jonathan Tilove – American-Statesman Staff

 

Joe Black and Jackie Robinson:Anniversary

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Joe Black and Jackie Robinson were teammates on the Dodgers from 1952-1955. On October 1, 1952, Joe Black became the first Black pitcher to win a World Series game. The Dodgers defeated the New York Yankees 4-2. He captured the National League Rookie of the Year Award at age 28 with 15 victories, 15 saves and a 2.15 ERA in 1952.

Jan Earnst Metzeliger (September 15, 1852-August 24, 1889)

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September 22, 1891 Jan Earnst Metzeliger of Lynn, Massachusetts posthumously received patent number 459,899 for improvements in the lasting machine for shoes. Metzeliger was born September 15, 1852 in Paramaribo, Dutch Guyana (now Suriname). After working as a sailor, he settled in the United States at 19. By 1877, he had moved to Lynn and was working for a cobbler. After five years of work, he received patent number 274,207 for his automatic method for lasting shoes March 20, 1883.

His machine could produce shoes ten times faster than working by hand and resulted in a more than 50% reduction in the costs of shoes. Matzeliger never saw the profits of his invention due to his death August 24, 1889. He also posthumously received patent numbers 415,726 for a mechanism for distributing tacks and nails November 26, 1889, 421,954 for a nailing machine February 25, 1890, and 423,937 for a tack separating and distributing mechanism March 25, 1890.

In 1991, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor and in 2006 he was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. “Shoes for Everyone: A Story about Jan Matzeliger” was published in 1986.

Dr. Ossian H.Sweet: Detroit History Maker

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Dr. Ossian H.Sweet, a prominent Detroit doctor, moved into his house September 8, 1925, in an all-white neighborhood. Sweet was arrested the next night on murder charges after shots were fired into a mob of approximately 1,000 whites who gathered in front of Sweet home in an effort to force him out of the all-white neighborhood.

He was later acquitted of all charges. The Sweet home at 2905 Garland St. was designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1975 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

Harlem Brewing Company

 

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Celeste Beatty shares details about the Harlem Brewing Company, she founded 14 years ago, on News Nation with Tamron Hall, August 28, 2014

The Harlem Brewing Company story starts about 86 years ago. Legend has it that during Prohibition a special beer was being made Uptown in Harlem that was the rave! During the early years of the Harlem Renaissance, this secret brew could be found in Speakeasies and after hours spots all over Harlem.

It was said to be the brew of choice for the many great musicians and artists that flourished in Harlem at that time. As alcohol was illegal during prohibition this beer was brewed in secret, a well-preserved African tradition handed down from generation to generation. (It is not widely known that beer has an ancient history that dates back hundreds of years in Africa and that many tribes brought that tradition to the shores of the US as early as the 1600s).

Sugar Hill Beer brings you that authentic delicious, unique taste Harlemites loved during the Renaissance. The brand’s beginnings in recent history took place in the spring of 1996 when we sat down to swing the brews and create a truly unique beer recipe with A Taste of the Harlem Experience. After a series of very intense jam sessions (meaning practice, research and more practice) lasting days, weeks and a couple of years, we finally mastered the art of the brew, balancing our water, hops, barley, and yeast.

We also went on tour (beer that is) hopping planes, trains and automobiles from Cooperstown, NY to Europe and on to Africa. With your support, Sugar Hill has gained local and international praise. Through the many distribution challenges, several out of state launches, recipe tweaking, and ongoing shelf and bar space wars “Sugar Hill beer lovers continue to tell us to just keep brewing!” Named for that swinging Harlem neighborhood made famous by musicians in the 30s, Sugar Hill Golden Ale sings with flavor!

Valerie Thomas: Historty Maker

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Valerie Thomas is a Physicist and Mathematician. She is the inventor of the Illusion Transmitter (improving television screen) as well as a lead project manager for one of NASA’s most utilized technologies – Landsat satellite series, which serve the purpose of capturing images from outer space and transmit them back to NASA for analyzing.

Cheryl Boone Isaacs:Ladies First!

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Congratulations to Cheryl Boone Isaacs who has been re-elected president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Congratulations to Cheryl Boone Isaacs who has been re-elected president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

This will be her second term as president. Cheryl is the first Black woman president of the body that oversees the Academy Awards This will be her second term as president. Cheryl is the first Black woman president of the body that oversees the Academy Awards.

Michael Jackson:Birthday Celebration!

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Brooklyn loves MJ Celebration is back Sunday, August 24th 12 Noon to 6PM at Bed-Stuy Restoration Plaza – Fulton St. & New York Ave. DJ Spinna will spin the music of Michael Jackson.

Matthew Henson: This Day in history

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Matthew Henson was one of the world’s greatest explorers. April 9th, 1909, six men made a mad dash for the North Pole. They were (in order from first to last) Matthew Henson, followed by four Eskimos pulling Robert Peary on a sled (his feet were frostbitten.) Henson out ran them all, becoming the first man in the world to reach the North Pole. Peary handed him the American Flag, which he planted at the site, in the snow. He then posed for a picture with the four Eskimo guides who led Peary and Henson to the top of the world.The explorers returned home to a divided public. Their claim to be the first to reach the North Pole was disputed by some and believed by others. Another explorer even claimed to reach the Pole first. Their claim was finally proven to be true but, not without consequence. Matthew Henson was shoved out of the limelight. Peary, his fellow explorer and “friend” claimed that he was the first man to reach the North Pole even though it was not true.

Henson, the first man in the world to reach the North pole was reduced to carrying luggage and parking cars to earn a living. Years after that famous expedition, Henson was accepted as a member of the Explorer’s Club. It was the club that gave Henson his well deserved recognition.
The club worked to get Henson recognized as the true discoverer of the North Pole. Their efforts paid off. In 1954, a year before Henson died, President Dwight D. Eisenhower presented him with an award acknowledging his great accomplishment. Matthew Henson’s family was so grateful, that after his death, they donated half of his insurance money to the Explorer’s Club.

 

Nipsy Hussle:Fat Burger

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California native and Rapper Nipsy Hustle became the proud owner of his very own Fat Burger Hamburger  franchise, located on Crenshaw Blvd.  Congratulation’s!

Happy Birthday Bitch Lewis (June 26, 1946-July 23, 2011)

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Zelda Wynn Valdes: Designing Women

 

 

 

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                                                                                                                                                     Zelda Wynn Valdes Designed the original Playboy Bunny uniform.

12AM:RUN

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Nas Urban shoe store 12am:Run  in Las Vegas Is extremely overrated, terrible location, limited selection , and understaff, don’t believe the Hype!

 

 

 

 

 

Happy Birthday: Taj Mahal

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Happy Birthday to Henry Saint Clair Fredericks (born May 17, 1942), who uses the stage name Taj Mahal…Grammy Award winning blues musician. He often incorporates elements of world music into his works. A self-taught singer-songwriter and film composer who plays the guitar, banjo and harmonica (among many other instruments), Mahal has done much to reshape the definition and scope of blues music over the course of his almost 50 year career by fusing it with nontraditional forms, including sounds from the Caribbean, Africa and the South Pacific.

Black Is Beautiful: Beauty Supply Industry

 

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Nationwide — The beauty industry involves black women from all corners of the world as customers, stylists, clinicians, models, manufacturers, spokespersons and more. The ethnic beauty business is a $15 billion business that consists of a 96% African-American customer base, but roughly only 3% of the retailers are African-American.

There has been talk in salons, on talk shows, at events and classrooms on what should be done about the disparities and discriminations in the industry. Some say boycott hair products, while others say boycott Asian-owned stores. However, there has been another group of individuals who have decided to take a more bold approach.

 

Real Estate investor, Princess Hill, and award-winning competition and master stylist, Kelly Williams, who are long-time friends and Detroit natives decided to open their own beauty supply store in Detroit, Michigan, a city that has been hit harshly by the downsizing of the auto industry and the political scandal of former mayor Kwame Kilpatrick.

Hill and Williams contacted Beauty Supply Institute (www.BeautySupplyInstitute.com), a company founded by economic activist Devin Robinson, who opened 3 of his own stores within 18 months almost 10 years ago (after being chased out of one by a golf-club-holding Korean owner for what turned out to be a case false accusation). Robinson also staged a one-week boycott in 2009 against non-black-owned beauty supply stores. Since that time, Beauty Supply Institute has opened almost 70 stores for other black women in the United States, Canada and the Caribbean and have helped to generate over $13,000,000 in gross revenues for urban communities.

Koreans (and Middle Easterners) continue to have a dominant presence in the beauty market. When we asked the Detroit store owners why, they said, “Their communities teach their children from young how to become great merchants. We may know more of the products but they know more about the retail business. This is why we were pleased once we began working with Beauty Supply Institute. They focus so much on running the retail business and it made us extremely prepared to be successful and profitable.”

They went on to say, “No black beauty business owner is immune to the industry disparities and lockouts. Kizure felt it and now we see Carol’s Daughter undergoing a bankruptcy restructuring. But this industry is constantly growing so I doubt these companies will close their doors for good. They are run by smart people and we should ensure we stand behind them as they re-emerge. We are in this business for the long-haul so you can expect to see us pop up more and more stores across the country.”

Hill and Williams are already working on their second store in Maryland.

Devin Robinson (www.DevinRobinson.com), along with George Fraser of Frasernet (www.Frasernet.com), and others will be featured panelist at the U.S. Capitol in Washington D.C. on May 19th, 2014 discussing issues in the beauty industry (www.TrichologySummit.com); an event organized by, trichologist and master educator Connie Judge, the founder of the National Trichology Training Institute in Stockbridge, Georgia.

The Beauty Supply Institute will hold its 5th annual Beauty Supply Store Start-Up Summer Conference in Atlanta, Georgia on August 16-17, 2014. The keynote speaker will be nationally syndicated radio host, Michael Baisden.

For media inquiries, contact Roschel Davis at rdavis@beautysupplyinstitute.com or call 404-551-4398.

Source: BlackNews.com

Stevie Wonder: This Day In Music

 

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On This Day In Music: In 1971, On his twenty-first birthday Stevie Wonder received his childhood earnings. He received $1 million.

In addition, Stevie Wonder independently recorded two albums, which he used as a bargaining tool while negotiating with Motown. Eventually the label agreed to his demands for full creative control (at that time the only artists to have that) and the rights to his own songs.

The 120-page contract was a precedent at Motown and gave Wonder a much higher royalty rate and a stipulation that stated, if Motown was to ever be sold that he gets to keep his publishing’s and he would have to approve the buyers). Stevie Wonder is one of the only artists that never recorded for anyone but Motown.

Dr. Dre: Billion Dollar Beats!

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Dr Dre is officially the first billionaire in hip-hop, thanks to a Beats by Dre buyout of 3.2 Billion Dollars!

Rudolph Fisher:“The Emancipation of Science.”

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Rudolph Fisher, a Commencement orator for Brown University, class of 1919, completed a dual major in biology and English. His career, as physician and writer, made him one of the pioneers in what is now radiology and earned him an awesome reputation as one of the wittiest writers of the Harlem Renaissance.

Fisher titled his speech “The Emancipation of Science.” In it, he argued that both disciplines have undergone evolution — science through the time-tested process of inquiry and discovery and religion through the enlightenment that Scripture mirrors the thinking and interpretation of peoples through time.

“As thinking Christians,” Fisher told his fellow students, “we strive not to bring men to heaven, but to bring heaven to men, and with that the aim of science is identical. It is this oneness of purpose that brings science and religion into harmony — a harmony which permits science to devote its energies not to self-protection, but to the making of life worth living.”

Fisher already had straddled two worlds by majoring in biology and English at Brown, a forerunner, perhaps, of the modern dual concentrator. His graduation day speech was a window on his future as he strode through the Van Wickle Gates, for Fisher’s professional life would be marked by grand achievements in science and in the literary arts.

Fisher went on to earn a master’s degree at Brown, followed by a medical degree from Howard University. He headed for New York City in 1925 on a fellowship at Columbia University to study the influence of ultraviolet rays on viruses. Even as his scientific career was taking off, Fisher was soaking up the sights, sounds of smells of Harlem, just as urban blacks were leading the sweeping literary, musical, and artistic revolution known as the “Harlem Renaissance.”

Fisher was a novelist, short story writer, dramatist, musician, and orator. His first published work, “City of Refuge”, appeared in the Atlantic Monthly of February 1925. He went on in 1932 to write The Conjure-Man Dies, the first novel with a black detective as well as the first detective novel with only black characters.

 

Shaquille O’Neal:Business Man

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When Shaquille O’Neal was drafted into the NBA, he spent the first million that he earned within 30 minutes. O’neal then received a phone call from his banker, who scolded him, and told him that he would end up joining the list of former athletes who ended up broke if the current trend continued.

O’neal decided to sharpen up his education on business and finance. He returned to college, completing his Bachelor’s degree, followed by his M.B.A, and lastly, his Ed.D. That’s right, he is now Dr. Shaquille O’neal.

As of today, Shaq is the joint owner of 155 Five Guys Burgers restaurants, 17 Auntie Annie’s Pretzels restaurants, 150 car washes, 40 24-hour fitness centers, a shopping center, a movie theater, and several Las Vegas nightclubs.

In addition to his business holdings, O’neal still earns $22 million per year (roughly $423,000 per week) from his endorsement deals with Arizona Creme soda, Icy Hot, Gold Bond, Buick, Zales, and at least a half dozen additional corporate sponsors. He is also a studio analyst for TNT.

In Shaq’s own words, “It is not about how much money you make. The question is are you educated enough to KEEP it.”

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Dr. Dre:Clippers Potential Buyer?

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Legendary Rapper/Producer Dr. Dre wants to put his bid in to purchase the Los Angeles Clippers! he’s added to the list of wealthy, famous African American business owners, Floyd Mayweather,NBA legend Magic Johnson, and media mogul Oprah Winfrey.

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